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利托那韦

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中文别名 瑞托那韦; 蛋白酶抑制剂; 利托那韦(cas,msds,应用)
英文别名 Ritonavir(155213-67-5)
CAS号 155213-67-5
SMILES CC(C)[C@H](NC(=O)N(C)CC1=CSC(=N1)C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@H](C[C@H](O)[C@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)OCC1=CN=CS1)CC1=CC=CC=C1
Inchi 1S/C37H48N6O5S2/c1-24(2)33(42-36(46)43(5)20-29-22-49-35(40-29)25(3)4)34(45)39-28(16-26-12-8-6-9-13-26)18-32(44)31(17-27-14-10-7-11-15-27)41-37(47)48-21-30-19-38-23-50-30/h6-15,19,22-25,28,31-33,44H,16-18,20-21H2,1-5H3,(H,39,45)(H,41,47)(H,42,46)/t28-,31-,32-,33-/m0/s1
InchiKey NCDNCNXCDXHOMX-XGKFQTDJSA-N
分子式 Molecular Weight C37H48N6O5S2
分子量 Formula 720.3127601
闪点 FP
熔点 Melting point NA
沸点 Boiling point
Polarizability极化度
密度 Density
蒸汽压 Vapor Pressure
溶解度Solubility DMSO 80 mg/mL
性状 固体粉末
储藏条件 Storage conditions -20°C,-4℃存储
Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)
Species Mouse Rat Rabbit Guinea pig Hamster Dog
Weight (kg) 0.02 0.15 1.8 0.4 0.08 10
Body Surface Area (m2) 0.007 0.025 0.15 0.05 0.02 0.5
Km factor 3 6 12 8 5 20

Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by  Animal B Km
Animal A Km

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

产品说明 利托那韦(CAS:155213-67-5,英文名:Ritonavir)属于蛋白酶抑制剂类的抗逆转录病毒小分子化合物,利托那韦可用于治疗HIV感染以及艾滋病。
IntroductionRitonavir is an HIV protease inhibitor that interferes with the reproductive cycle of HIV. Although it was initially developed as an independent antiviral agent, it has been shown to possess advantageous properties in combination regimens with low-dose ritonavir and other protease inhibitors. It is now more commonly used as a booster of other protease inhibitors and is available in both liquid formulation and as capsules. While ritonavir is not an active antiviral agent against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, it is added in combination therapies indicated for treatment of HCV infections as a booster. Ritonavir is a potent CYP3A inhibitor that increases peak and trough plasma drug concentrations of other protease inhibitors such as Paritaprevir and overall drug exposure. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines recommend ritonavir-boosted combination therapies as a first-line therapy for HCV Genotype 1a/b and 4 treatment-na?ve patients with or without cirrhosis. Ritonavir is found in a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir, Dasabuvir, and Paritaprevir as the FDA-approved product Viekira Pak. First approved in December 2014, Viekira Pak is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotype 1b without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, and when combined with Ribavirin for the treatment of HCV genotype 1a without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.Ritonavir is also available as a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir and Paritaprevir as the FDA- and Health Canada-approved product Technivie. First approved in July 2015, Technivie is indicated in combination with Ribavirin for the treatment of patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.In Canada, ritonavir is also available as a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir, Dasabuvir, and Paritaprevir as the Health Canada-approved, commercially available product Holkira Pak. First approved in January 2015, Holkira Pak is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotype 1b with or without cirrhosis, and when combined with Ribavirin for the treatment of HCV genotype 1a with or without cirrhosis. Inclusion of ritonavir can can select for HIV-1 protease inhibitor resistance-associated substitutions. Any HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients treated with ritonavir-containing combination therapies should also be on a suppressive antiretroviral drug regimen to reduce the risk of HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug resistance.
Application1潜在冠状病毒抑制剂Experimental Unapproved Treatments for COVID-19
Application2
Application3
Ritonavir (trade name Norvir) is an antiretroviral compound from the protease inhibitor class used to treat HIV infection and AIDS. Ritonavir (ABT-538) induces CYP 1A2 and inhibits the major P450 isoforms (3A4 and 2D6). Ritonavir is frequently prescribed with HAART, not for its antiviral action, but as it inhibits the same host enzyme that metabolizes other protease inhibitors, allowing the clinician to lower their dose and frequency and improving their clinical efficacy. More specifically, ritonavir (ABT-538) is used to inhibit a particular liver enzyme that normally metabolizes protease inhibitors, cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4). Ritonavir's inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 enzyme reduces the metabolism of concomitantly administered protease inhibitors and changes their pharmacokinetic parameters, including area under the curve (AUC), maximum concentration (Cmax), minimum concentration (Cmin) and half-life (t1/2). As a result, the bioavailability of the boosted protease inhibitor is increased and improved penetration into HIV reservoirs may be achieved.
Ritonavir 是一种蛋白酶抑制剂类抗逆转录病毒化合物,用于治疗HIV感染和艾滋病。利托那韦(ABT-538)诱导CYP 1A2并抑制主要的P450亚型(3A4和2D6)。 HAART经常与利托那韦一起开处方,并不是因为它具有抗病毒作用,而是因为它抑制与其他蛋白酶抑制剂代谢相同的宿主酶,从而使临床医生能够降低其剂量和频率并提高其临床疗效。更具体地说,利托那韦(ABT-538)用于抑制通常代谢蛋白酶抑制剂细胞色素P450-3A4(CYP3A4)的特定肝酶。利托那韦对细胞色素P-450 CYP3A4酶的抑制作用会降低同时给药的蛋白酶抑制剂的代谢并改变其药代动力学参数,包括曲线下面积(AUC),最大浓度(Cmax),最小浓度(Cmin)和半衰期(t1) / 2)。结果,增强的蛋白酶抑制剂的生物利用度得以提高,并且可以提高对HIV贮库的渗透。
Hull MW, Montaner JS: Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in HIV therapy. Ann Med. 2011 Aug;43(5):375-88. doi: 10.3109/07853890.2011.572905. Epub 2011 Apr 18. [PubMed:21501034]
Myers RP, Shah H, Burak KW, Cooper C, Feld JJ: An update on the management of chronic hepatitis C: 2015 Consensus guidelines from the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;29(1):19-34. Epub 2015 Jan 13. [PubMed:25585348]
Sevrioukova IF, Poulos TL: Structure and mechanism of the complex between cytochrome P4503A4 and ritonavir. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 26;107(43):18422-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010693107. Epub 2010 Oct 11. [PubMed:20937904]
Rock BM, Hengel SM, Rock DA, Wienkers LC, Kunze KL: Characterization of ritonavir-mediated inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4. Mol Pharmacol. 2014 Dec;86(6):665-74. doi: 10.1124/mol.114.094862. Epub 2014 Oct 1. [PubMed:25274602]
Tseng A, Hughes CA, Wu J, Seet J, Phillips EJ: Cobicistat Versus Ritonavir: Similar Pharmacokinetic Enhancers But Some Important Differences. Ann Pharmacother. 2017 Nov;51(11):1008-1022. doi: 10.1177/1060028017717018. Epub 2017 Jun 19. [PubMed:28627229]
American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance. http://hcvguidelines.org. Accessed June 12, 2017. [Link]
FDA Approved Drug Products: NORVIR (ritonavir) Capsules, Soft Gelatin for Oral use [Link]
FDA Approved Drug Products: Norvir (ritonavir) for oral use [Link]
CaymanChem: Ritonavir MSDS [Link]
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